# Cubic Splines in Visual Basic QuickStart Sample

Illustrates using natural and clamped cubic splines for interpolation using classes in the Numerics.NET.LinearAlgebra namespace in Visual Basic.

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``````Option Infer On

' The Constant and Line classes resides in the
' Numerics.NET.Curves namespace.
Imports Numerics.NET.Curves

' Illustrates the use of the Constant class in the
' Numerics.NET.Curve namespace of Numerics.NET.
Module CubicSplines

Sub Main()
' The license is verified at runtime. We're using
'     https://numerics.net/trial-key

' A cubic spline is a piecewise curve that is made up
' of pieces of cubic polynomials. Its value as well as its first
' derivative are continuous, giving it a smooth appearance.
'
' Cubic splines are implemented by the CubicSpline class,
' which inherits from PiecewiseCurve.
'
' For an example of piecewise constant and piecewise
' linear curves, see the PiecewiseCurves QuickStart
' Sample.
'

'
' Creating Cubic Splines
'

' In order to define a spline curve completely, two extra
' conditions must be imposed.

' 'Natural' splines have zero second derivatives at the
' end points. This is the default.

' The data points are specified as double arrays containing
' the x and y values:
Dim xValues As Double() = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Dim yValues As Double() = {1, 3, 4, 3, 4, 2}
Dim naturalSpline As New CubicSpline(xValues, yValues)

' 'Clamped' splines have a fixed slope or first derivative at the
' leftmost and rightmost points. The slopes are specified as
' two extra parameters in the constructor:
Dim clampedSpline As New CubicSpline(xValues, yValues, -1, 1)

' 'Akima' splines minimize the oscillations in the interpolating
' curve. The constructor takes an extra argument of type
' CubicSplineKind:
Dim akimaSpline As New CubicSpline(xValues, yValues, CubicSplineKind.Akima)
' The factory method does not require the extra parameter:
akimaSpline = CubicSpline.CreateAkima(xValues, yValues)

' Hermite splines have fixed values for the first derivative at each
' data point. The first derivatives must be supplied as an array
' or list:
Dim yPrimeValues As Double() = {0, 1, -1, 1, 0, -1}
Dim hermiteSpline As CubicSpline = New CubicSpline(xValues, yValues, yPrimeValues)
' Likewise for the factory method:
hermiteSpline = CubicSpline.CreateHermiteInterpolant(xValues, yValues, yPrimeValues)

'
' Curve Parameters
'

' The shape of any curve is determined by a set of parameters.
' These parameters can be retrieved and set through the
' Parameters collection. The number of parameters for a curve
' is given by this collection's Count property.
'
' Cubic splines have 2n+2 parameters, where n is the number of
' data points. The first n parameters are the x-values. The next
' n parameters are the y-values. The last two parameters are
' the values of the derivative at the first and last point. For natural
' splines, these parameters are unused.

Console.WriteLine("naturalSpline.Parameters.Count = {0}",
naturalSpline.Parameters.Count)
' Parameters can easily be retrieved:
Console.WriteLine("naturalSpline.Parameters(0) = {0}",
naturalSpline.Parameters(0))
' Parameters can also be set:
naturalSpline.Parameters(0) = 1

'
' Piecewise curve methods and properties
'

' The NumberOfIntervals property returns the number of subintervals
' on which the curve has unique definitions.
Console.WriteLine("Number of intervals: {0}",
naturalSpline.NumberOfIntervals)

' The IndexOf method returns the index of the interval
' that contains a specific value.
Console.WriteLine(\$"naturalSpline.IndexOf(1.4) = {naturalSpline.IndexOf(1.4)}")
' The method returns -1 when the value is smaller than the lower bound
' of the first interval, and NumberOfIntervals if the value is equal to or larger than
' the upper bound of the last interval.

'
' Curve Methods
'

' The ValueAt method returns the y value of the
' curve at the specified x value:
Console.WriteLine(\$"naturalSpline.ValueAt(2.4) = {naturalSpline.ValueAt(2.4)}")

' The SlopeAt method returns the slope of the curve
' a the specified x value:
Console.WriteLine(\$"naturalSpline.SlopeAt(2) = {naturalSpline.SlopeAt(2)}")
' You can verify that the clamped spline has the correct slope at the end points:
Console.WriteLine(\$"clampedSpline.SlopeAt(1) = {clampedSpline.SlopeAt(1)}")
Console.WriteLine(\$"clampedSpline.SlopeAt(6) = {clampedSpline.SlopeAt(6)}")

' Cubic splines do not have a defined derivative. The GetDerivative method
' returns a GeneralCurve:
Dim derivative = naturalSpline.GetDerivative()
Console.WriteLine(\$"Type of derivative: {derivative.GetType().ToString()}")
Console.WriteLine(\$"derivative(2) = {derivative.ValueAt(2)}")

' You can get a Line that is the tangent to a curve
' at a specified x value using the TangentAt method:
Dim tangent = clampedSpline.TangentAt(2)
Console.WriteLine(\$"Slope of tangent line at 2 = {tangent.Parameters(1)}")

' The integral of a spline curve can be calculated exactly. This technique is
' often used to approximate the integral of a tabulated function:
Console.WriteLine("Integral of naturalSpline between 1.4 and 4.6 = {0}",
naturalSpline.Integral(1.4, 4.6))

Console.Write("Press Enter key to exit...")