# Numerical Differentiation in IronPython QuickStart Sample

Illustrates how to approximate the derivative of a function in IronPython.

View this sample in: C# Visual Basic F#

```Python import numerics from math import * from System import Math # The numerical differentiation classes reside in the # Extreme.Mathematics.Calculus namespace. from Extreme.Mathematics.Calculus import * # Function delegates reside in the Extreme.Mathematics # namespace. from Extreme.Mathematics import * # Illustrates numerical differentiation using the # FunctionMath class in the Extreme.Mathematics # namespace of Numerics.NET. # Numerical differentiation is a fairly simple # procedure. Its accuracy is inherently limited # because of unavoidable round-off error. # # All calculations are performed by static methods # of the FunctionMath class. All methods are extension # methods, so they can be applied to the delegates # directly. # # Standard numerical differentiation. # # Central differences are the standard way of # approximating the result of a function. # For this to work, it must be possible to # evaluate the target function on both sides of # the point where the numerical result is # requested. # The function must be provided as a # Func<double, double>. For more information about # this delegate, see the FunctionDelegates # QuickStart Sample. fCentral = cos print "Central differences:" # The actual calculation is performed by the # CentralDerivative method. result = FunctionMath.CentralDerivative(fCentral, 1.0) print " Result =", result print " Actual =", -sin(1.0) # This method is overloaded. It has an optional # out parameter that returns an estimate for the # error in the result. import clr estimatedError = clr.Reference[float]() result = FunctionMath.CentralDerivative(fCentral, 1.0, estimatedError) print "Estimated error =", estimatedError.Value # # Forward and backward differences. # # Some functions are not defined everywhere. # If the result is required on a boundary # of the domain where it is defined, the central # differences method breaks down. This also happens # if the function has a discontinuity close to the # differentiation point. # # In these cases, either forward or backward # differences may be used instead. # # Here is an example of a function that may require # forward differences. It is undefined for # x < -2: fForward = lambda x: (x+2) * (x+2) * Math.Sqrt(x+2) # Calculating the derivative using central # differences returns NaN (Not a Number): result = FunctionMath.CentralDerivative(fForward, -2.0, estimatedError) print "Using central differences may not work:" print " Derivative =", result print " Estimated error =", estimatedError.Value # Using the ForwardDerivative method does work: print "Using forward differences instead:" result = FunctionMath.ForwardDerivative(fForward, -2.0, estimatedError) print " Derivative =", result print " Estimated error =", estimatedError # The FBackward function at the end of this file # is an example of a function that requires # backward differences for differentiation at # x = 0. fBackward = lambda x: 1.0 if x > 0.0 else Math.Sin(x) print "Using backward differences:" result = FunctionMath.BackwardDerivative(fBackward, 0.0, estimatedError) print " Derivative =", result print " Estimated error =", estimatedError # # Derivative function # # In some cases, it may be useful to have the # derivative of a function in the form of a # Func<double, double>, so it can be passed as # an argument to other methods. This is very # easy to do. print "Using delegates:" # For central differences: dfCentral = FunctionMath.GetNumericalDifferentiator(fCentral) print "Central: f'(1) =", dfCentral(1) # For forward differences: dfForward = FunctionMath.GetForwardDifferentiator(fForward) print "Forward: f'(-2) =", dfForward(-2) # For backward differences: dfBackward = FunctionMath.GetBackwardDifferentiator(fBackward) print "Backward: f'(0) =", dfBackward(0) ```